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- The Middle Palaeolithic research in Romania. Past and current issues - Persée
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The Middle Palaeolithic research in Romania. Despite the abovementioned caveats, by using the available information new syntheses were elaborated, in the attempt to provide different perspectives on the MP. At the same time, excavations at some old sites were resumed, and by employing modern investigation methods new important information was gained on site formation processes, raw material management and associated reduction sequences, palaeoenvironement, etc.
Hominin fossils Direct evidence. In the s, in a Middle Palaeolithic level from Livadița cave southwestern Romania was found a phalange which was assigned to Homo neanderthalensis Terzea Currently, this piece cannot be located Păunescu Although lost today, they were briefly described by J.
Gall Gallwho assigned them to Homo primigenius Schwalbe.
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A third discovery, a dental bud of M1 of La Adam cave Dobrogea coming from a presumably Gravettian level was assigned to a Homo sapiens which also exhibited Neandertal features Necrasov Same as the two previous discoveries, the dental bud is lost Păunescu a. Indirect evidence.
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Two sites with Pleistocene footprints were reported; they are both unexcavated and with no Palaeolithic tools found on the surface. Only one print was completely preserved, and the calculations indicated an individual of ca.
Consequently, the individual who produced the prints must have been a Neandertal Onac et alii In were discovered ca. Recent analysis, carried out for 51 prints, has determined a MNI ~ 7, children and adults, with heights ranging from For their chronological bracket, the terminus post quem was determined by radiocarbon dating of Ursus spelaeus bones right below the prints, which yielded an age of ca.
The terminus ante quem is provided by the trace of a human footstep overprinted by a bear, so it should be before the extinction of cave bears, at ca.
Archaeozoology In the first decades after the Second World War, faunal analysis of the material coming from MP sites was in general limited to the identification of taxa, relative frequency, and brief anatomical descriptions; the species were used as mere climate indicators Bombiţă ; Terzea Discussion on subsistence and hunting were rather scarce and had a very theoretic character, i.
Her research was mainly focused on Neolithic and later periods, occasionally dealing with Upper Paleolithic Bolomey ; unfortunately, the innovative approaches she advocated for remained largely ignored in the study of MP faunal assemblages.
The Middle Palaeolithic research in Romania. Past and current issues
The status of appendix of archaeozoological analyses can be well illustrated from the situation at Ripiceni — Izvor, as was pointed out by Pop In the monograph on the site Păunescua special u- 235 dating features malacofauna analysis carried out by A.
Discussion When discussing the MP research in Romania, a few issues arise. This is partially confirmed for two cave sites Peștera Muierii and Peștera Curatăbut should not necessarily be extrapolated to the others.
Share on Facebook Share on Twitter Dintre toate metodele de datare izotopică utilizate astăzi, metoda de plumb uraniu este cea mai veche și, atunci când este făcută cu atenție, cea mai fiabilă. Spre deosebire de orice altă metodă, plumbul de uraniu are o încrucișare naturală încorporată în el, care arată când natura a modificat dovezile. Elementele de bază ale plumbului de uraniu Uraniul vine în două izotopi comune, cu greutăți atomice de și le vom numi U și U. Ambele sunt instabile și radioactive, dând particule nucleare într-o cascadă care nu se oprește până nu devine plumb Pb. Cele două cascade sunt diferite - U devine Pb și U devine Pb.
Secondly, the study of lithic industries has been, until recently, focused on thorough description of the lithic material, but with little interpretation in raw material acquisition, subsistence strategies or mobility patterns.
Recent attempts have tried to provide a broader picture on the economy of the U- 235 dating communities, but these projects are partially hampered by poor information regarding the provenience of the objects, as well as sometimes incomplete assemblages.
Given this situation, the reassessment of old collections is a partial solution, as well u- 235 dating resuming excavations in known sites, but the best solution is, in my view, the discovery of new sites to be investigated with modern methods.
The MP sites have also yielded fauna and a few hominin remains, mostly in cave sites except for Ripiceni — Izvor. The faunal assemblages are understudied, and were generally presented with very few exceptions at a minimal level.
Therefore, information on taphonomy which could be provided by archaeozoological analysis is incomplete. The hominin fossil record for the MP is scarce, as the bone finds reported from cave sites are unfortunately lost; the sites where footprints were discovered and dated were not excavated to the moment, dating records vinyl inside the cave or in the surrounding areas.
The presence of both categories however account for a certain potential for the future research in finding hominin remains from the MP. Conclusion Throughout the 20th century, valuable research on MP has been carried out by numerous Romanian scholars.
In the recent decades, through local effort and international collaborations, significant progress was made.
We now know that the oldest MP occupations date to Middle Pleistocene, and the data available so far indicates that cave occupations are fairly young. The least progress was made in the study of old faunal assemblages, but hopefully the collections available will be investigated with modern methods, so as to provide additional data to the picture s outlined through the study on stone tools.
U dating The largest known nucleus at the time was that of the Uranium atom containing protons and neutrons. Izotopul U se va deplasa spre exteriorul cilindrului, loc de unde va fi colectat și va fi utilizat, în general, la prepararea unor reactivi de laborator [UO2 CH3COO 2, UO2 NO3 2] care nu trebuie să conțină izotopul periculos emite și raze gamma U. Indiferent de izotop, atomii de uraniu fisionează spontan emițând particule alfa.
Numerous surface collections that most probably belong to the MP, as well as numerous fossil caves and large loessic areas accounts for the great research potential Romania has for the study of this period.